A Indian leader - who inspired the movement for civil rights and freedom of the people all over the world

Mahatma Gandhi is also known as the Father of the Nation. Mahatma Gandhi has played a special role in providing freedom to the country. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, also known as Mahatma Gandhi, was a prominent political and spiritual leader of the Indian and Indian independence movement. He was the pioneer leader of retaliation for tyranny through satyagraha (widespread civil disobedience),The foundation of his concept was laid on the principle of complete non-violence, which gave freedom to India and inspired the movement for civil rights and freedom of the people all over the world. He is known by the general public in the world as Mahatma Gandhi. Every year on October 2, his birthday is celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti in India and International Nonviolence Day all over the world.

Mahatama Gandhi known as Father of the Nation, India
Mahatma Gandhi & his wife Kasturba (wikipedia)

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was born on 02 October 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat. He was the youngest child of his parents, he had two brothers and a sister. His father Karamchand Gandhi was the Diwan of Porbandar State. His mother Putlibai was the fourth wife of Karamchand.In childhood, Mahatma Gandhi was married to Kasturba Gandhi. When Mahatma Gandhi was 15 years old, his first child was born, but he died in a few days. Within a year of this incident, Gandhiji's father also died.

About a month before his 19th birthday, on 8 September 18, Gandhi went to England to study law and become a barrister at University College, London. He returned to India after being called back to the England and Wales Bar Association, but did not have much success in advocating in Bombay. Later, after being refused a part-time job as a high school teacher, he made Rajkot his permanent place to write suit applications for the needy.But due to the stupidity of an English officer, he had to leave this business too. In his autobiography, he describes the incident as an unsuccessful attempt at philanthropy on behalf of his elder brother. This was the reason that he accepted the practice of advocating a one-year agreement with an Indian firm in 1893 in Natal South Africa, which was then part of the British Empire.

In South Africa, Gandhi faced discrimination against Indians. He was initially thrown out of the train for refusing to enter the third class compartment after having a valid first class coach ticket. Not only this, while traveling the rest of the rung, the driver of a European passenger also suffered an attack. He faced many other difficulties in his journey. Many hotels in Africa were barred from him.
Similarly, there was one of many incidents in which a judge of the court ordered him to take off his turban which he did not believe. All these events became a turning point in Gandhi's life and led to awareness of the prevailing social injustice and proved to be helpful in explaining social activism. In view of the injustice being done to Indians in South Africa, Gandhi raised questions for the honor of his countrymen under the English Empire and for his own position in the country.

In 1906, two British officers were killed after the introduction of a new election tax in Zulu South Africa. In return, the British launched a war against Julu. Gandhiji actively inspired the British officers to recruit Indians. His argument was that Indians should cooperate in war efforts to legalize their citizenship claims.However, the British refused to give Indians positions in their army. Despite this, he accepted Gandhiji's proposal that Indians could voluntarily work to bring wounded British soldiers to the Stetcher for treatment. Gandhi took over the reins of this corps.

Gandhi returned from South Africa to live in India in 1915. He expressed his views on the conventions of the Indian National Congress, but his views were on India's main issues, politics and the then Indian Congress leader Gopal Krishna. Gokhale was a respected leader.

Some of his main freedom movements:
Champaran and Kheda
non cooperation movement
Swaraj and Salt Satyagraha (Salt March)
Dalit Movement and Determination Day

In December 1927, Gandhiji made a motion in a session of the Congress held in Calcutta asking him to give power to the Indian Empire or face the Non-Cooperation Movement for the independence of the entire country as his motive for not doing so. Be prepared to do. Gandhiji not only fueled the idea of ​​youths like Subhash Chandra Bose and men like Jawaharlal Nehru demanding immediate independence but also stopped his own demand for one year instead of two years. The British did not respond

The government, represented by Lord Edward Irwin, decided to hold discussions with Gandhiji. It was signed in March 1931 by the Treaty of Irwin Gandhi. To end the civil disobedience movement, the British Government agreed to release all political prisoners. As a result of this agreement Gandhi was invited to attend the Round Table Conference to be held in London as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress.This conference was extremely disappointing for Gandhiji and the nationalists, because it was focused on Indian prices and Indian minorities rather than transferring power. In addition, Lord Willington, Lord Irwin's successor, began a new campaign to control and crush the movement of nationalists. Gandhi was again arrested and the government tried to prevent his followers from being influenced by Gandhi, keeping him completely away from them. However, this tactic was not successful.

When World War II broke out in 1939 when Nazi Germany invaded Poland. Gandhi initially favored non-violent moral support to the efforts of the British, but other Congress leaders opposed the unilateral inclusion in the war without consulting public representatives. did. All the elected members of Congress collectively resigned their post on. After a long discussion, Gandhi declared that India would not be a party to any war when it fought outside for democratic independence when India itself was denied independence. As the war progressed Gandhiji intensified his demand for independence by giving the British the Quit India Movement. This was the most obvious rebellion of Gandhi and the Congress Party, which was targeted at expelling the British from India.

Gandhiji and all the members of the Congress Working Committee were arrested by the British on 7 August 1942 in Mumbai. Gandhiji was held captive for two years at Agah Khan palace, Pune. This was the time when Gandhiji suffered two deep blows in his personal life. His 50-year-old secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack 4 days later and his wife Kasturba Gandhi died on 22 February 1949 after Gandhiji spent 14 months in jail.Six weeks later, Gandhiji also suffered from severe malaria. Due to his poor health and necessary treatment, he was released before the end of the war on 6 May 1979. Raj did not want to see him dying in jail which would increase the anger of the country. Although the Quit India Movement was a partial success in its objective, but the stubborn suppression of the movement united India by the end of 1943. At the end of the war, the British gave a clear indication that the Santha would be transferred and handed over to the Indians. At this time Gandhiji stopped the movement which led to the release of about 100,000 political prisoners including Congress leaders.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Patel and Acharya Kripalani got the most votes when Congress voted for the future Prime Minister when India got independence in 1947. But at the behest of Mahatma Gandhi, both of them withdrew their names and Jawaharlal Nehru was made the Prime Minister. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of independent India in 1947. It is the time when India's Prime Minister was selected in an undemocratic manner.

Gandhiji advised the Congress in 1919 to turn down the proposal of the British Cabinet Mission because he was deeply skeptical of the proposed grouping for Muslim dominated provinces, so Gandhi called the episode a rehearsal of a partition. Seen as Since Nehru and Patel knew that if the Congress did not approve the plan, then the control of the government would go to the Muslim League. Between 1959, more than 5000 people were killed during the violence. Gandhiji was against any such scheme which divided India into two different countries. The overwhelming majority of many Hindus and Sikhs and Muslims living in India were in favor of the partition of the country. Additionally, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, leader of the Muslim League, introduced extensive cooperation in West Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province and East Bengal. In order to stop the widespread Hindu-Muslim fighting, Congress leaders gave their approval to this plan of partition. Congress leaders knew that Gandhiji would oppose partition and it was impossible for the Congress to move forward without his consent, because Gandhi's support in Partarthy and his position throughout India was strong. Close associates of Gandhiji accepted Partition as the best solution and Sardar Patel tried to convince Gandhiji that this was the only way to prevent a war with civil unrest. Mazabur Gandhi gave his permission.

On January 30, 1919, Gandhi was shot and killed by Nathuram Godse while he was walking in the grounds of Birla Bhavan (Birla House, New Delhi. Gandhi's killer Nathuram Goudse was a Hindu nationalist whose fundamentalist Hindu Mahasabha There were relations with which Gandhiji was responsible for weakening India on the issue of payment to Pakistan. Godse and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were later tried and sentenced to death and were hanged on 15 November 1979. The memorial of Gandhiji at Raj Ghat, New Delhi has "Hey Ram in Devanagari" written on it.

Major Published Books of Ghandhi's
There are four books originally written by Gandhiji - Hind Swaraj, History of Satyagraha of South Africa, Experiments of Truth (Autobiography), and commentary on the entire Gita including Gita Matter Kosh. Gandhiji usually wrote in Gujarati, but translated or got his books translated into Hindi and English as well.

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